Krill Oil vs. Fish Oil

“Researchers cautioned on making an anti-inflammatory claim for krill oil. Rather, they concluded, “Our findings demonstrate that fish oil and krill oil are comparable dietary sources of [omega-3 fats]. However, when similar doses of [omega-3 fats] are administered, krill oil seems to have a greater potential to promote [fat breakdown].””

By Greg Arnold, DC, CSCS, September 24, 2012, abstracted from “Krill oil versus fish oil in modulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mice transgenic for TNF-alpha” published online August 25, 2012 in the European Journal of Nutrition

The Center for Disease Control defines “overweight” as having a body mass index of greater than 25 kg/m2, with obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher. Being overweight or obese increases the risk for a number of diseases that include heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer (endometrial, breast, and colon), high blood pressure, stroke, liver/gallbladder disease, and osteoarthritis (1).

A significant contributor to this increased risk of disease is due to the release of a number of inflammatory proteins called adipokines by adipose (fat) tissue that produces a state of chronic low-grade inflammation (2) that can set of a cascade of inflammatory proteins (3). .

As a result, helping maintain healthy levels of inflammation by helping lower levels of fat in the blood may be a way to help manage the harmful inflammatory effects of obesity. Now a new study (4) suggests that krill oil may help with fat breakdown.

In the study, 18 mice genetically manipulated to have high TNF-alpha levels (called “hTNF-alpha transgenic mice”) were divided into 3 groups and given 3 different diets, all of which contained the same amount of calories and consisting approximately 21 %protein, 46 %fat, 33 % carbohydrate for 6 weeks:

– CONTROL GROUP: High-fat diet with (23.6% by weight – 21.3% lard and 2.3% soybean oil)

– FISH OIL GROUP: High-fat diet with (23.7% by weight: 18.5% lard, 2.3% and soybean oil,
and 2.9% fish oil)

– KRILL OIL GROUP: High-fat diet (23.7% by weight – 15.6% lard, 2.3% soybean oil and 5.8%
krill oil)

The researchers had to use twice the amount of krill oil than fish oil (5.8% versus 2.9%) to equalize the omega-3 fat content of the diets. They compared fish oil and krill oil because, while both are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, they differ in structure. In fish oil, the omega-3 fats are attached to a fat molecule called a triacylglyceride (TAG, normally referred to as triglycride), while in krill oil they are attached to a fat molecule called a phospholipid and, as a result, are thought to have slightly different effects in the body (5, 6). Krill oil’s higher antioxidant content is thought to make it more stable against cell damage and have a better benefit in the body (7).

By the end of 6 weeks, researchers observed levels of TAG to decrease by 19% (1.07 to 0.9 millimoles/Liter) in the krill oil group compared to no changes in either the fish oil group or the control group (p < 0.05). When they looked at fat breakdown, the krill oil group had a 32% higher rate than the control group (0.29 vs. 0.22 millimoles/minute/milligram) and a 7% higher rate than the fish oil group (0.29 vs. 0.27 mmol/min/mg). There was also 71% greater activation of an enzyme called ACOX1 in the krill group versus the control group (3.6 vs. 2.1 nanoamoles/minute/milligram, p < 0.0001 ) and 16% greater ACOX1 activation compared to the fish oil group (3.6 vs. 3.1 nmol/min/mg, p < 0.0001).

This increased fat breakdown will help decrease overall adipose tissue levels in the body and may lead to decreased release of pro-inflammatory proteins, thereby maintaining a healthier level of inflammation. But the researchers cautioned on making an anti-inflammatory claim for krill oil. Rather, they concluded, “Our findings demonstrate that fish oil and krill oil are comparable dietary sources of [omega-3 fats]. However, when similar doses of [omega-3 fats] are administered, krill oil seems to have a greater potential to promote [fat breakdown].”

REFERENCE:

1. “Causes of Consequences of Obesity” from the CDC website
2. Berg AH. Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 2005; 96(9):939–949
3. Fernandez-Real JM. Insulin resistance and chronic cardiovascular inflammatory syndrome. Endocrin Rev 2003 Jun;24(3):278-301
4. Vigerust NF. Krill oil versus fish oil in modulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mice transgenic for TNF-alpha .Eur J Nutr 2012 Aug 25 [Epub ahead of print]. DOI 10.1007/s00394-012-0441-2
5. Deckelbaum RJ, Worgall TS, Seo T (2006) n-3 fatty acids and gene expression. Am J Clin Nutr 83(6 Suppl):1520S–1525S
6. Mori TA, Woodman RJ (2006) The independent effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9(2):95–104\
7. Tou JC. Krill for human consumption: nutritional value and potential health benefits. Nutr Rev 2007; 65(2):63–77

Greg Arnold is a Chiropractic Physician practicing in Hauppauge, NY.

ARTICLE extracted from:
http://www.now-university.com/Library/WeightMaintenance/090437.htm#.UcZDZoFArYV

Advertisements

About SoLoved Health

SoLoved Health is all about Wholesomeness for the Whole Family including pets. SoLoved Health's mission is to Nurture LifeStyle PREVENTIVE Health (by one's Choice) rather than Curative Health (often out of compulsion).
%d bloggers like this: